Low Sperm Count 

Low Sperm Count: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

A low sperm count relates to a lower number of sperm in the semen (fluid) that you ejaculate through your penid while having sex with your female partner or masterbation. It is oligospermia. As per the World Health Organisation, you have a lower sperm count when you have lower than 15 million sperm in 1 millilitre semen. With it, you can’t make your female partner pregnant and have a child in your lap.

Causes of Low Sperm Count 

Sperm development is a complex process and requires proper and constant functionality of the testicles, pituitary, and hypothalamus glands. These organs produce human hormones that facilitate sperm production. After the production, certain tubes carry sperm to let it get mixed with semen  and ejaculated through the penis during sex or masterbation. Any irregularities in the process affect sperm production and ejaculation. Further, these can cause poor sperm shape, motility, and function. 

The primary cause of low sperm count is unknown. However, reproductive health experts consider clinical, environmental, and lifestyle reasons behind a low sperm count. Some leading causes are as follows:  

  • Varicocele
  • Bacterial infection
  • Ejaculation issues 
  • Penile erection problems 
  • Tumours 
  • Undescended testicles
  • Hormonal imbalance 
  • Celiac disorder 
  • Chromosomal deficiencies
  • Previous surgical treatments
  • Exposure to industrial chemicals, heavy metal, and extreme heat 
  • Certain medicines 
  • Alcohol consumption 
  • Smoking 
  • Stress & anxiety 
  • Excess body weight 

Symptoms of Low Sperm Count 

The primary sign of low sperm count is inability to make a female partner pregnant. You can have other noticeable symptoms such as a hormonal imbalance, obstruction in the passing of sperm, and dilated testicular veins. Your low signs of low sperm count can include:

  • Penile erection issues 
  • Low libido 
  • Reduced body or facial hair 

Suggest to Read:- Egg Freezing & Embryo Freezing

Diagnosis and Treatment    

You (male partner) should consult a respective doctor when you notice you are unable to make your female partner pregnant even after having unprotected physical intimacy for a year. While interacting with a fertility expert, you should explain everything you have noticed. After that, the doctor can conduct a physical examination and recommend semen analysis. In addition, the doctor can recommend the following tests/screenings:

  • Hormone assessment
  • Scrotal ultrasound
  • Hereditary checks
  • Post-ejaculation urinalysis
  • Testicular biopsy
  • Anti-sperm antibody checks
  • Transrectal ultrasound 

Based on the report, the doctor can suggest the most effective treatment options that could be a mix of:

  • Medicines
  • Surgery to correct the structural issues in the testicles 
  • Lifestyle changes 

How can you prevent low sperm count?     

In general, it is possible to avoid having a low sperm count. By making a few changes in your lifestyle and daily habits, you can keep this reproductive health issue away from you. Your doctor can advise you what you should do and what you should not do to keep your sperm healthy and normal. Here are some effective steps for your help:

  • Take healthy diet every time 
  • Quit smoking 
  • Take your alcohol consumption down to a moderation level or stop drinking 
  • Exercise regularly. Do jogging, running, walking, or moderate yoga poses to stay healthy and fit 
  • Manage your body weight. For it, keep a close watch on your BMI and try to keep it between 20 and 25 
  • Stay away from illicit drugs 
  • Avoid having constant and long exposure to extreme heat and industrial chemicals
  • Never take any medicine without consulting your doctor 
  • Manage your stress through meditation and deep breathing practices   
  • Maintain a safe distance from toxins and harmful chemicals 


Low sperm count is a male factor infertility. It can obstruct you from making your female partner pregnant and having a baby conventionally. Through semen analysis, your doctor can help you know your sperm count, shape, motility, and functionality if you suspect of having low sperm count. By following a healthy lifestyle and having distance from metals and heat, you can preserve your sperm health.


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